So, welcome to our Designing 21st Century Skills tests feature.

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Alternative foundational constructs are sets of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are considered important for individuals to possess in order to succeed in the 21st century. These constructs are often seen as alternatives or supplements to traditional academic subjects and include:

  1. 21st Century Skills: This set of skills includes critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity, which are considered essential for success in today’s rapidly changing and complex world.
  2. Digital Literacy: This construct refers to the ability to effectively and responsibly use technology, including digital tools and online resources, to communicate, collaborate, and solve problems.
  3. Global Competency: This construct involves the ability to understand and appreciate diverse cultures, languages, and perspectives, and to work effectively in a global context.
  4. Entrepreneurial Mindset: This mindset involves the ability to identify opportunities, take risks, and innovate in order to create value and solve problems.
  5. Social-Emotional Learning: This construct refers to the ability to manage emotions, build positive relationships, and make responsible decisions, which are critical for success in both personal and professional contexts.

Overall, these alternative foundational constructs are seen as essential for individuals to thrive in the 21st century and beyond

Summarise alternative models of cognitive ability/ intelligence e.g. PASS

Alternative models of cognitive ability or intelligence

These are frameworks that attempt to provide a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of how the mind works. Some examples of alternative models include:

  1. PASS Model: The PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive) model of intelligence was developed by neuropsychologist Reuven Feuerstein. It suggests that cognitive ability can be broken down into four key areas: planning, attention, simultaneous processing, and successive processing.
  2. Triarchic Theory: The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence, developed by psychologist Robert Sternberg, posits that intelligence can be divided into three components: analytical intelligence (problem-solving), creative intelligence (generating novel ideas), and practical intelligence (adaptation to new situations).
  3. Multiple Intelligences: This theory, developed by Howard Gardner, suggests that there are several different types of intelligence, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.
  4. Emotional Intelligence: This construct, popularized by psychologist Daniel Goleman, refers to the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions, as well as to use emotions to guide thought and behavior


We have nearly 30 years experience of bespoke psychometric test designs. Rob Williams has published fivepsychometric test books, to date!

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